What is Biodiversity? Why Is It Important? - Full knowledge


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Biodiversity (Biological diversity) is the variation found in organisms which also includes the diversity of species between species and their ecosystems. The term biodiversity was first used by Walter G. Rasan in 1985.

What is Biodiversity?

There are three types of biodiversity.

  • Genetic diversity
  • Species diversity
  • Ecosystem diversity

The genetic diversity found in a species is called genetic diversity. This genetic diversity is the result of different types of adaptations of organisms in different habitats.

The diversity found among species is known as species diversity. Species diversity is essential for the proper functioning of a particular community or ecosystem.

Ecosystem diversity is the variation in the ecosystems found on Earth in which species live. The diversity of ecosystems is reflected in diverse biogeography regions such as lakes, deserts, estuaries, etc.

Importance of biodiversity

  • Biodiversity is the basis of life on earth.
  • It is important to the environment and to humans on Earth.
  • Biodiversity remains the basis of human existence through soil formation, prevention of soil erosion, waste recycling and crop pollination.
  • Human beings get food from animals, plants, resources required for habitat, clothes, medicines, rubber, wood etc.
  • Soil formation, waste disposal, air and water purification, nutrient cycling, absorption of solar energy and management of biogeochemical and hydrological cycles are all dependent on biodiversity.

The value of the component of biological diversity:

The benefits derived from the conservation of components of biodiversity can be divided into three groups:

  • Biological resource
  • Ecosystem services
  • Social benefit
Biological resource

Biodiversity is important because the biological resources present in the ecosystem benefit human beings in many ways. For future resources, breeding stock, population collection or cell, wood products, pharmaceutical processing, ornamental plants, horticulture, food sustainability as well as other activities.

Ecosystem services

These services keep environmental changes under control and adapt to life.

Such services include sustaining ecosystems, conserving water resources, contributing to climate stability, pollution, erosion and absorption, soil formation and conservation, nutrient storage and cycling, etc.

Social benefit

Under this the following benefits can be included.

Cultural values, entertainment, research, education and enlightenment, contemporary methods, benefits etc.

Biological diversity also has economic, social, cultural and political significance.

Ecological issues have also become a part of meetings of international organizations.

Medicinal value

There are some plants in the world that have medicinal properties.

Many herb species are found in India.

Many herbs are used to treat complex diseases related to pain reliever, cancer, treatment of malaria.

About 25 percent of medicines in the world are made from 125 species of herbs alone.

There are eighty thousand species of edible plants in the world, with only 8 plant species providing 75 percent of the human diet.

The pain reliever morphine and the cancer treatment drug Taxol are obtained from plants.

Many antibiotics are made using microbes.

Most of the medicinal plants are found in the equatorial region and tropical rain forest.

At present, about 25000 plant species are standing on the verge of extinction.

Importance of biodiversity in productivity

Biodiversity benefits humans directly or indirectly.

Agriculture includes plant species, especially wheat, maize, rice, millets, pulses, etc., from which humans get their food.

Social or ecological importance

Loss of biodiversity directly affects social life.

Today, problems like global warming and acid rain have arisen due to the loss of biodiversity.

Biodiversity is of utmost importance to sustain human life on earth.

Importance of Biodiversity in Agriculture

Conservation of agro-biodiversity is very important for the balance of life and ecosystem.

Agro-biodiversity strengthens the agricultural ecosystem and nurtures all species by increasing production efficiency.

There are about 940 species of agriculture.

Aesthetic importance

Nature has given many types of beautiful plants to man.

Humans are now conserving domestic animals and birds through zoos to increase eco-tourism.

Man is conserving plants and trees and protecting natural beauty through botanical gardens.

Man has been giving cultural importance to Tulsi and Peepal trees.

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